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Citing Sources & Style Guides

Resources for Citing Sources and Style Guides for APA, MLA, and other formats.

APA Style

APA Style is from the American Psychological Association. It is a very widely used style in the social sciences--not just in psychology. It is probably the most commonly used style on campus.

In 2019, APA released their 7th edition of the APA Manual. When using any online citation tools, make sure that they are based on the new edition.

Web Resources

Video Tutorial

APA Manual

Tips about APA from an APA Workshop

During a workshop about the APA Style, presented by the APA itself, the following helpful tips were presented. To go beyond these pointers, please consult the APA Style: 7th Ed.: Style & Grammar Guidelines resource listed above.

General Format for a Citation: Author. Date. Title. Source. This simple outline helps explain what you need in a citation.

Cite What You See: If information is missing, just omit it.

When to Use Italics: Use italics for the TITLE when the item is a stand-alone work, like a book. Do not use italics for the title of an item that is part of a larger work, such an article in a journal. But you would then use italics for the SOURCE of the article, which is the name of the journal. Treat a WEBPAGE title as a stand-alone work and put the TITLE in italics.

Retrieval Date: You only need a retrieval date if the work is designed to change and is not archived in a fixed form. Example.

Citing Websites: Use the date of publication, if available, or the date of last update. Do NOT use the date of copyright or last review. Use your judgment when identifying the TITLE of the website. Make it easy for the reader to identify the correct page you are citing.

Citing Government Websites: Use the MOST specific government agency listed as the "corporate author." Use: "National Institute of Health," not its parent agency "US Department of Health and Human Services." But, DO include the parent agency in the SOURCE area. Example.

Do Not Include in References: If an item is not available to others to view, do not include it in your references. Personal communications are an example. Cite in the body of your paper as "personal communication," etc. Example.

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